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麥考瑞作業代寫:標簽理論

2017-03-30 11:17

在第十八世紀后期,可以說,標簽理論的中心宗旨存在于杰里米·邊沁的工作中,他指出,刑罰制度有促進犯罪的力量,而不是削減它。這也可以看出Henry Mayhew的考慮,上世紀第十九年代中期,他承認過度熱心的警務是在未成年人犯罪[ 2 ]創造的因素。理論家們反復提出要求,刑事司法制度發展的越軌行為,而不是削減它。事實上,許多制度化的犯罪分子繼續增加他們的犯罪行為,釋放了這一觀點。標簽的方法后來被Edwin Lemert解釋說這是社會反應造成偏差的精制。值得注意的是,Lemert區分初級和次級之間的偏差。Lemert的基本偏差為越軌行為之前就已經公開稱他被稱為自發的、零星的或輕微違反規則可能來自許多不同的來源(拉尼爾和亨利,2004:194)。Lemert認為,這些行為的主要偏差有唯一的邊際影響,有關人的心理結構的狀態(阿拉朗博和霍爾1995:408)。拉默特提出,要引起偏差響應社會反應以及由此產生的恥辱。他把這個過程稱為二次偏差,它是越軌行為的識別和引起越軌行為的反應。Lemert聲稱,“實際上原來的“原因”的偏差退去,讓中央的重要性,譴責、降解、分離反應社會”(從Haralambos和霍爾,1995:408)。Lemert的理論是如何說明標簽理論家標記問題和選擇過程的經典例子。
麥考瑞作業代寫:標簽理論
In the late eighteenth century it could be said that the central tenet of labelling theory existed in the work of Jeremy Bentham who commented that penal institutions have the power to promote offending, rather than curtail it. It can also be seen in the considerations of Henry Mayhew in the mid nineteenth century, who recognised that over zealous policing was a factor in the creation of juvenile delinquency[2]. Theorists repeatedly make claims that the criminal justice system develops deviant behaviour, rather than curtailing it. The fact that many institutionalised criminals continue and increase their criminal behaviour on release exemplifies this view.The labelling approach was later refined by Edwin Lemert who explained that it was societal reaction which caused deviation. Notably, Lemert distinguished between primary and secondary deviation. Lemert’s primary deviation consists of deviant acts before they have been publicly labelled which he referred to as spontaneous, sporadic or minor rule violations which may stem from many different sources (Lanier and Henry, 2004: 194). Lemert argued that these acts of primary deviation had ‘only marginal implications for the status and the psychic structure of the person concerned’ (Haralambos and Holborn 1995: 408). Lamert put forward that it was the societal reaction and resulting stigma that would lead to a response from the deviant. He termed this process secondary deviation; it was the identification of deviance and the reaction of this that caused the deviance. Lemert claimed ‘in effect the original “causes” of the deviation recede and give way to the central importance of the disapproving, degradational, and isolating reactions of society’ (From Haralambos and Holborn, 1995: 408). Lemert’s theory is a classic example of how labelling theorists illustrated the problematic and selective process of labelling.

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