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澳洲麥考瑞代寫作業:服從的研究

2018-12-28 00:44

在艾希曼因其罪行出庭受審的同時,斯坦利·米爾格拉姆(Stanley Milgram, 1963, 1974)正在進行關于服從的研究。在他的研究中,正常和心理穩定的男性作為教師參與了一項錯誤記憶測試。當另一個人回答錯誤時,這些人愿意給另一個充當學習者的人施加電脈沖,以增加電平。每個參與者都準備好了提供300伏特的強震。65%的人符合所有實驗者的要求,將最高電壓的沖擊分布在450伏特。因此,米爾格拉姆的結論支持了阿倫特的觀點,即普通人可以對有害行為負責,但他的推理也反映了阿倫特的觀點。米爾格拉姆解釋說,當人們面對權威人士時,他們會把自己的行為責任交給負責人。批評家指出阿倫特和米爾格拉姆的解釋僅僅是巧合,但進一步的證據表明并非如此。Blass(2004)指出,Milgram在1963年的研究中沒有受到先前理論的任何影響。進一步的支持來自心理學領域的“斯坦福監獄實驗”。這個實驗是菲利普津巴多在1973年做的。在這項研究中,參與者被隨機分配到囚犯或獄警的角色中。目的是監測兩周內出現的群體互動。
澳洲麥考瑞代寫作業:服從的研究
At the same time that Eichmann was appearing in court for his crimes, Stanley Milgram (1963, 1974) was carrying out his studies on obedience. In his study, normal and psychologically stable men participated in a false memory test, as the role of teachers. These men were willing to administer electric jolts of increasing level to another person, who acted as learner, whenever the latter answered incorrectly. Every single participant was ready to deliver powerful tremors of 300 volts. Sixty-five per cent complied with all the experimenter’s requirements, distributing shocks of the highest voltage at 450 volts. Milgram’s conclusion therefore supports Arendt’s argument that ordinary individuals can be responsible for harmful acts, but also, his reasoning reflected hers too. Milgram explained that when people are faced by authoritative individuals, they surrender responsibility for their actions to those in charge. Critics state that the explanations from Arendt and Milgram are merely coincidental but further evidence suggests otherwise. Blass (2004) noted that Milgram worked without any influence from previous theories during his 1963 study.Further support comes from the field of psychology in the form of the ‘Stanford Prison Experiment’. This experiment was conducted by Philip Zimbardo in 1973. In this study, participants were randomly allocated to the role of a prisoner or a prison guard. The aim was to monitor the group interactions which developed over a two weeks period.

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