2019-01-06 23:40

杜威堅持實用主義理想,在現實環境中檢驗自己的教育理論。他創建了后來被稱為他自己的“實驗學校”。杜威的學校與當時任何一所學校都截然不同。學生們沒有坐在課桌前聽老師講課或做課本上的家庭作業。相反,他們會在教室里走來走去,做各種各樣的體育活動,如縫紉或烹飪。如前所述,杜威認為學生可以通過這些活動來學習他們所需要的關鍵技能(例如數學和科學),而不是傳統的“學習課本”的方法。孩子們按年齡分組,每個不同的年齡組總是在做不同的事情。杜威讓孩子們去野外旅行,做模型,表演戲劇,玩游戲以及其他許多“活躍”的事情。他鼓吹教師應該推遲讓孩子做諸如閱讀和寫作之類的事情,直到學生覺得有必要并且有興趣這樣做為止(Dewey Article, Enotes)。杜威的學校有成功也有失敗,他的偉大“實驗”有很多可以借鑒之處。“雖然我承認,許多偉大的教育實踐最初是在杜威的實驗學校發展起來的,但我不得不注意到其中存在的根本缺陷。”如果我把杜威在他的學校里展示的東西應用到當今的教育界,我認為他的體系將會失敗。原因首先是杜威似乎是通過“玫瑰色的眼鏡”來看待教育。在我看來,教育理論應該適用于任何情況。我想到了杜威在他的學校里所做的一切,在那里,家庭生活被大量地納入課堂課程。但是,那些來自破碎家庭的孩子們呢?正如我們在當今社會經常看到的那樣。如果一個孩子在酗酒的父母的監督下受到虐待或遭受痛苦,而這些父母對孩子的教育漠不關心,那么杜威的教育體系又該如何看待這種情況呢?如果一個孩子的父母非常支持他,對他的教育非常感興趣,那么杜威的學校可能會運作得很好,但在當今世界,這種情況有多常見呢?紐約大學(New York University)的作家兼教育學家亨利·佩金森(Henry Perkinson)對杜威的實驗學校做了這樣的評論:“杜威的教育哲學描述了一個或多個學校,它們從未存在過,也可能永遠不會存在。”要做到這一點,就需要有超級教師和超級學生”(佩金森)。雖然我認為杜威正在把教育引向正確的方向,但我認為他首先需要找到一種方法來發展一種適用于每個學生的教育理論。
Dewey stayed true to his pragmatic ideals by testing out his own education theories in a real-life environment. He created what became to be known as his very own “laboratory school.” Dewey’s school was radically different than any other of its time. The students did not sit at desks and listen to a teacher lecture or do homework problems out of a textbook. Instead they would be moving about the classroom doing varying physical activities, such as sewing or cooking. As I stated earlier, Dewey believed that students could learn the critical skills (math and science for example) that they needed by doing these types of activities instead of the more traditional “studying the textbook” method. The children were broken down by age and every different age group was always doing something different. Dewey had the kids going on field trips, building models, acting out plays, and playing games among many other “active” things. He preached that teachers should hold off on having kids do things like reading and writing until the student found it necessary and appealing to do so (Dewey Article, Enotes). Dewey’s school had its successes and failures and there is a lot that can be taken away his grand “experiment.”While I do admit that a lot of great education practices were first developed at Dewey’s laboratory school, I cannot help but notice the fundamental flaws that existed in it. If I was to apply what Dewey showcased in his school to today’s world of education, I think his system would fail. The reason for this is first that Dewey seemed to be looking at education through “rose colored glasses” so to speak. In my opinion, a theory on education should be able to apply to any situation. I think about what Dewey had put together in his school, where the home life was heavily incorporated into the class curriculum. But, what about children that come from broken homes, as we see so often in today’s society? If a child is being abused or suffering under the watch of alcoholic parents, who could care less about their child’s education, how would that fit into Dewey’s system? Dewey’s school would probably work well in a case where a child has very supportive parents that are extremely interested in their child’s education, but how often is that not the case in today’s world? Henry Perkinson, an author and educator at New York University, makes a comment about Dewey’s lab school saying, “Dewey’s educational philosophy depicts a school or school enterprise that never existed and probably never could exist. To carry it out would require superteachers and superstudents” (Perkinson). While I believe Dewey is taking education in the right direction, I think he first needs to find a way to develop a theory on education that can apply to each and every student.