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ASSIGNMENT代寫

澳洲麥考瑞assignment代寫:社會的有機運作

2019-05-03 00:43

功能主義者認為,社會必須被劃分為不同的群體,每一個群體都承擔著社會作為一個整體(有機整體)生存所必需的任務。當人們在內部自覺或無意識地接受為整個社會的有機運作作出貢獻的需要時,社會就能很好地運作。為了所有人的生存,人們自愿地同意淹沒他們個人身份的一部分。他們這樣做是因為他們認識到,社會沒有簡單的替代品。他們會指責馬克思主義者的“烏托邦主義”——即幻想一個“完美”的社會,但完全不切實際,無法實現,建立在一個夢想世界的基礎上。當人們接受自己在社會中的角色時,他們就形成了一種社會良知,迪爾凱姆將其稱為“良知集體”。功能主義者傾向于將社會學家埃米爾•迪爾凱姆(Emile Durkheim)視為他們觀點的創始人。這并不完全正確。現代功能主義者,如塔爾科特·帕森斯(Talcott Parsons),試圖捍衛資本主義,但迪爾凱姆對未來有機社會的愿景是,沒有資本的繼承性,人們將只根據價值來分配自己的功能角色。從這個意義上說,現代資本主義社會不是精英主義。不同的個體在社會中找到了不同的角色,但是個體的機會在很大程度上受到他們的階級狀況的影響。盡管迪爾凱姆并不完全是資本主義的捍衛者,但他的功能主義傾向于捍衛資本主義。他的功能主義告訴我們,每一個社會群體都是整個社會的功能部分。
澳洲麥考瑞assignment代寫:社會的有機運作
Functionalists take the view that society must be divided into separate groups, each of which performs a task that is necessary to the survival of society as a whole – the organic whole. Societies function well when people accept internally, either consciously or unconsciously, the need to contribute to the organic functioning of the whole of society. People agree voluntarily to submerge part of their individual identity in favour of the survival of all. They do this because they recognise that there is no simple alternative to society. They would accuse Marxists of “utopianism” – that is, dreaming up a “perfect”, but wholly unrealistic and unrealisable society based on a dream world. When people accept their role in society they develop a form of social conscience, which Durkheim labels the “conscience collective”. Functionalists tend to look to the sociologist Emile Durkheim as the founder of their point of view. This is not entirely true. Modern functionalists, like Talcott Parsons, seek to defend capitalism, but Durkheim’s vision of the organic society of the future was one in which there would be no inheritance of capital, so people would be assigned their functional role on the basis of merit alone. Modern capitalist societies are not meritocracies in this sense. Different individuals find different roles in society, but the opportunities of individuals are considerably affected by their class situation. Although Durkheim is not exactly a defender of capitalism, his functionalism, which tells us that every social grouping is a functional part of the whole of society, tends to favour a defence of capitalism. 

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